The Great Empires and Kingdoms of Pre-Colonial and Pre-Slavery African

The ancient world was filled by curious explores who scavenged for new lands. This curiosity leads to the discovery of a continent, which was set aside from the rest of the world. The newly discovered continent was rich in resources, culture, and unique leadership systems. To top it all, it was filled with people of a different race, the black race. Africa had its native policies of administration and ruling. Great empires and kingdoms were formed and grew into their sustainable capacities. The ancient African civilization comprised well-strategized and adequately administrative systems, which enabled them to defend their territories keeping at bay enslavers and colonizers. However, following various failures in the kingdoms and empires, many administrative systems failed. This exposed Africa to slavery and colonization.

The Land of Punt

The Land of Punt is belied to have been geographically positioned, on the Red Sea coast of East Africa. Historical records hold that this Kingdom dated back to around 2500 B.C. According to Egyptian historical records, the land of Punt has been portrayed as a land belonging to gods. The Land of Punt was thought godly by the Egyptians following the inexplicably different fauna and flora make-up of the land. The Ancient Egyptians believed the Land of Punt to be rich in ebony trees and wood, high-quality gold, filled with spices such as myrrh and exotic animals. Archaeological researchers suppose that during the 15th century, under the reign of Queen Hatshepsut, Egyptian flotillas and large caravans were commissioned to a trade mission to this land. This was evidenced by a discovered papyrus painting, showing the preparations. Time was of great importance to Ancient Egyptians. It enabled them to plan for cultivation and harvesting times following the yearly cycle of seasons. The astronomers and priests needed correct timing for daily rituals and religious festivals. Hence the sundial was invented to aid in the correct timing. However, during the night, sundials were functionless, since the sun was out of the view. A man named Amenemhat invented the water clock, enabling accurate timing throughout the day and night. An ancient traveler named Pythagoras, during his visits to Egypt discovered “the-rope sketchers.” They were the engineers of the time who accurately build the pyramids, by the use of a circular rope with 12 evenly spaced knots. However, the rope was pinned with two of its sides forming an L, a triangle was always formed. Some later time as Pythagoras was drawing a 3–4–5 triangle, with three squares an all sides, he learnt that the areas of the two smaller squares equaled the area of the larger square. Hence he represented his findings mathematically, and the Pythagoras theorem was born. Ancient Egypt was a land filled with jaw-dropping, facts. These Africans developed a book, called, Coming Forth by Day and Night, presently known as the book of death. It was deciphered from ancient Egyptian writing to English by Sir Ernest, an Egyptologist. This lead to the discovery that the Christian Bible was written by Africans since the writings dated longer than the Bible.

Carthage Empire

In the City of Tunis, which happens to be the capital city of Tunisia, there lies a series of ruins. These ruins, encompass a rich history of a once-powerful Carthage Empire. History records that this ancient African Empire was so influential to the extent of rivaling Rome during the Punic Wars. Its influence was felt as far as Spain from North Africa. Carthage Empire lasted for a long time, estimated to exceed 500 years. Carthage Empire is believed to have started by the 8th or 9th century. It solely began as a settlement for the Phoenicians. However, it evolved into a sea trading empire. It majored in the trade of textiles, gold, copper, and silver. This Empire grew astonishingly into inhabiting five hundred thousand inhabits. It was located in a protected harbor that had a holding capacity of two hundred and twenty ships. Carthage was well managed and had an insatiable urge to expanding its empirical scale. It was this urge for growth that lead to conflicts with the Roman Empire. This saw Rome and the Carthage Empire engage in a series of Punic Wars. The first Punic war started in 264 B.C, and the third Punic war ended in 146 B.C., almost completely wiping out Carthage Empire.

Mali Empire

History holds that the ancient Mali Empire as one of the jewels of the African continent. This Empire was widely known all over the world following its hefty indulgence in jewelry. Hence, it flourished in wealth and luxury. So wealthy was this Empire that legends hold that; Mali’s emperor, Mansa Musa, during the 14th century, while in pilgrimage to Mecca, stopped over in Egypt, and gave out a lot of gold to the extent that the gold market prices in entire Egypt dropped, for some years. The Mali Empire is believed to have begun in the 12th century. Its founding ruler, Sundiata Keita alias “Lion King,” revolted against a king of Sosso Kingdom, transforming the Sossos’ subjects into his newfound governance. The successors of “Lion King” increased their ruling power over most parts of the Western Africa region. Hence the Mali Empire grew tremendously in trade. The main religion in this Empire was Islamic. Therefore well-designed mosques and Islamic schools filled the Empire. Djenne and Timbuktu cities were the main cities, whose fame was primarily derived from the elaborate mosques that they harbored. Timbuktu City had the Timbuktu Sankore University, which was famously known for having approximately 700,000 manuscripts. However, the Mali Empire gradually died down in the 16th century.

Kingdom of Aksum

Little is known concerning the origin of Aksum Kingdom. However, history holds that this Kingdom existed during the same period that the Roman Empire did. The Aksum Kingdom had present Eritrea and the northern parts of Ethiopia under its rule, only that the two had different ancient names. History holds that the Kingdom of Aksum was a trading juggernaut. The Kingdom was involved in ivory and gold trade with old Europe and other continents. The Kingdom had a designed unique architectural style, which entailed the construction of giant obelisks from stone. The written manuscript was the first to be developed in ancient Africa and was known as Ge’ez. The stone build obelisks stood to an astounding height of 100 feet, at the time. During the 4th century, Aksum Kingdom stood out by being the first Kingdom not only in Africa but also in the world to adopt Christian religion. This religious step is evident to this date in Ethiopia as the Orthodox Church., though the ruler at some later point had denounced it, it remained. The Kingdom enjoyed a military alliance, following the adoption of Christianity, with Byzantines.

Kingdom of Kush

The Kingdom of Kush. This Kingdom was of ancient Nubian EmpireEmpire. The Kingdom bordered Egypt at its northern side. History holds that the Kush Kingdom lasted for ten centuries, as a regional African based power. The Kush Kingdom is thought to have gained total control in administration after its first a thousand years of existence B.C. This was after it won massive ruling along River Nile, which is Sudan in the present world. The Egyptian history records hold that the Kush Kingdom majored in economic activities. These economic activities were lucrative and included the trade of; ivory, incense, gold, and partly iron. Funny enough, history holds that it was a trading partner at the same moment had a military rivalry with Egypt, to the extent of ruling Egypt as its 25th Empire. It learned and absorbed many customs from its neighbors. Hence the Kushites believed in several Egyptian gods; they practiced mummification of the dead and even constructed pyramids of their making. Currently, the ruins of the ancient Kush Kingdoms boost of more monuments than those in Egypt.

Great Zimbabwe

It was thought that the Zimbabwe Ruins were once the biblical, Queen Sheba’s dwellings. However, history and historians are of the varied opinion. They believe the Great Zimbabwe ruins were the capital city of an ancient empire, which had functioned as from the 13th through to the 15th century — putting at bay all the myths attached to these ruins. The ruins are composed of arranged boulders, granite stone towers, and perimeter walls made of cut granite blocks. The ancient Kingdom is believed to have ruled over the more significant portion of the presently; Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and finally Botswana. The Kingdom was thought to be wealthy since it was rich in cattle and had a sufficient flow of precious metals. In addition to the resources, it was located close to a trading route, which facilitated the flow of the Kingdom’s gold to the ever-ready market ports of the Indian Ocean coasts. The Kingdom left little knowledge of its history. However, from the unearthed artifacts, much has been gathered. The unearthed Arabian glassware, Chinese pottery goods, and European textiles prove the existence of profitable once existent, mercantile trade. The ancient city of Great Zimbabwe is estimated to have housed over twenty thousand people. The fall of this great ancient city was after it was evacuated, for unknown reasons, during the 15th century.

Songhai Empire

This ancient African Empire boosts it, indisputably, a large area of administration. It is estimated to have been more significant than the area that Western Europe covers in today’s’ world. History holds that the Songhai Empire was formed during the 15th century. It integrated some of the regions that were formerly under the Mali Empire rule. The Empire run under bureaucratic systems, which divided the massive Empire into sizable provinces administrated by the governors. The economic growth was mostly dependent and came about following the well thought out trade policies. Songhai Empire experienced its peak under the reign of the devoted King Muhammad I Askia. This King found new lands by conquest. He fixed an alliance with the Muslim Caliph of Egypt. He builds many Islamic schooling facilities in Timbuktu. Following the devotion of King Muhammad I Askia, the Songhai Empire rose to great heights and became the most powerful Empire in the world of the time. However, in the late 15th century, it lost power control, following long civil wars. It also suffered from within strife’s, which left the Kingdom vulnerable to invasion by Morocco’s Sultan, which marked its end.

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